Understanding the Internet and its Components

Understanding the Internet and its Components
Understanding the Internet - Components, Forms, Benefits, History, Positive, Negative, Experts: Generally the internet is a computer network that is connected and works as a system.

Understanding the Internet
In general, the internet is a computer network that is connected and works as a system. While the internet in particular is the largest computer network in the world because it can connect all computer networks in all corners of the world. And while for the network is a way to be able to connect several computers so that each computer in it can be interconnected.

Understanding the Internet According to Experts
To know the understanding of the internet scientifically, it is good to listen to the opinions of experts about the understanding of the internet, and here are excerpts from some opinions of experts about the understanding of the internet:

According to Lani Sidharta (1996)
although physically the Internet is interconnection between computer networks, but in general the Internet must be seen as an information resource. Internet content is information, can be imagined as a database or multi-media library that is very large and complete. Even the Internet is seen as a world in another form (virtual) because almost all aspects of life in the real world exist on the internet such as business, entertainment, sports, politics and so forth.

Drew Heywood (1996)
Internet history begins in the late 1960s when the United States Department of Defense (DoD) needed a new standard for working Internet communications. That is a standard that is able to connect all types of computers in DoD with computers owned by military contractors, research and scientific organizations at universities. This network must be strong, safe and resistant to damage so that it can operate in the minimum conditions due to disaster or war.

Khoe Yao Tung,
which states that the internet is a network of communication satellites whose functions are very diverse and certainly are supporting the internet throughout the world.

strauss, El-Ansary, Frost (2003, p8)
The internet is an entire network that is connected to one another. Some computers on this network store files, such as web pages, which can be accessed by the entire computer network.

O'Brien (2003, p10)
The internet is a rapidly growing computer network of millions of businesses, education and government networks that are interconnected with more than 200 users.

Allan (2005, p12)
The internet is a collection of computer networks that are physically connected to each other and have the ability to read and decipher certain communication protocols called the Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). A protocol is a simple specification regarding how computers exchange information.

Onno W. Purbo
explained that the Internet with various applications such as the Web, VoIP, E-mail is basically a medium used to streamline the communication process. (Prihatna, 2005, p7).

computer rides (2005, p4)
The internet is a method for connecting various computers into one global network, through a protocol called the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP).

The internet and the web are a method for displaying information on the internet, both in the form of text, images, sound and video that are interactive and have the advantage to link (link) one document with other documents (hypertext) that can be accessed through a browser.

Mac Bride
translated by Sugeng defines the internet as follows: The internet is a global communication network that is open and connects thousands of computer networks, through public and private telephone lines (government and private). (Mac Bride, 1997: 1).

John December
The internet is defined as follows: The internet is a collection of computer networks that work together to globally distribute information exchanges through the TCP / IP protocol. (John December, 1997: 27)

Positive and Negative Impacts of the Internet

Positive and Negative Impacts of the Internet
Developer tools
What needs to be known in addition to the intranet if some of the organization's information is to be exposed so that it can be accessed by outside networks (internet) is a firewall and router (this internet will be an extranet).

Internet history
In 1969 the United States Department of Defense in the ARPA - ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network) project demonstrated how to communicate without limitation (infinite distance) through telephone lines using computer hardware and software based on the UNIX Operating System. In the ARPANET project, after the network design was designed with the standardization of reliability and how much information can be transferred to share, a new protocol called TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was formed.

The original purpose of the ARPANET project was actually limited to military needs, at that time a computer network system was made to connect computers to vital areas / regions.
In 1969 the ARPANET initially only connected 4 sites including the Stanford Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, the University of Utah into an integrated network. Then in October 1972 the ARPANET was generally introduced and soon developed very rapidly throughout the region until the ARPANET had difficulty managing it.
So the ARPANET was split into two parts namely "MILNET" for military purposes and smaller ARPANET in non-military needs. Over time the combination of the two networks was known to the wider community with the name DARPA Internet and then simplified again to the Internet as we now know it. The term internet was first used in 1982 with the development of name servers that allow users to connect to a particular host.

Positive and negative impacts of the internet
The following are Positive and Negative Impacts of the Internet
Positive impact
1. Internet as a communication media, is the most widely used internet function where every internet user can communicate with other users from all over the world.
2. Data exchange media, using email, newsgroups, ftp and www (world wide web network of web sites) internet users around the world can exchange information quickly and cheaply.
3. Media to search for information or data, the rapid development of the internet, making www as one of the important and accurate sources of information.
4. The ease of obtaining information on the internet so people know what is happening.
5. Can be used as a field of information for education, culture, and others
6. Ease of transaction and business in the field of trade so that you do not need to go to the place of offer / sale.

Negative impact
The assumption that says that the internet is identical with pornography, is not wrong. With the ability to deliver information owned by the internet, pornography is rampant. To anticipate this, the producers of browser complement their programs with the ability to choose the type of home page that can be accessed. On the internet there are pornographic images and violence that can lead to encouragement to someone to act criminally.

Violence and Gore
Cruelty and violence are also displayed. Because the business and content of the internet world is unlimited, site owners use all kinds of methods to 'sell' their sites. One of them by showing things that are taboo.

It infectious all aspects. The internet is not spared from fraudsters. The best way is to disregard this or confirm the information you have obtained with the information provider.

Because of its immediate nature, how to shop using a credit card is the most widely used method in the internet world. The internet criminals also commit the most crimes in this field. With an open nature, criminals are able to detect transactions (using Credit Cards) on-line and record the Card code used. Henceforth they use the data they get for the benefit of their crime.

Another effect is the expansion of gambling. With the available network, gamblers don't need to go to a special place to fulfill their desires. You just need to avoid sites like this, because gambling sites are generally not aggressive and require a lot of approval from visitors.

Components of the Internet

Components of the Internet
www (world wide web)
www is an internet server system that supports hypertext applications to access several internet protocol interfaces. Almost all the protocols that exist on the internet can be accessed via the web including such as Email, Telnet, FTP and Usenet News.

Email or electronic mail is a service that can facilitate or assist in sending messages or files via e-mail, which can be received in seconds.

Is a program for logging into other computers on the internet so that you can access online databases such as library catalogs, chat services and much more. Untul this telnet to another computer that needs to know the address of the computer, for that address in the form of words such as mail, uns, ac, id or can be a number like

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
Is a method that can be used to transfer files from one computer to another computer on the internet. This FTP site contains books (e-books), softwares articles, games, images and all files on a computer can be transferred via FTP.

Usnet News
It is a discussion system in which millions of computers exchange information on many topics. The main difference between a usnet news and mailing list is that the usenet messege stored on the central computer "server" and the user must be connected to that computer to be able to read or download messages sent to each member's mailbox.

Mailing List
One of the advantages that can be taken from the internet is the opportunity to communicate with one another using email. This internet is a very wide place for discussion communities with certain topics distributed via email. A container for collecting emails in a particular community is by means of this thief list.

Transmission Technology
Broadcast network: has a single communication channel that is shared by all machines on the network. Point-to-point network: consists of several relationships of individual pairs of machines.

The Shape and Size of a Computer Network
LAN (Local Area Network)
A network that has a local network that is in the same physical location that can connect computers with other computers using a cable that is connected to a device that is shared. On this network allows users to use printers and storage devices simultaneously, use programs and send messages or e-mail messages to one or more computer users in the same small office.

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
This is a version of Lan that is larger and includes such offices in adjacent companies or a city and can be used for personal or public purposes.

WAN (Wide Area Network)
On a computer network this one can cover a very broad geographical, often including a country or a continent.

Benefits of the Internet
In general, many benefits can be obtained if a person has access to the internet. The following are part of what is available on the internet, among others:
Information for personal life
Which include health, recreation, hobbies, personal development, spiritual, and social
Information for professional / worker life
Which include such as science, technology, trade, stocks, commodities, business news, professional associations, business associations and various communication forums.
Components forming an intranet are basically the same as forming components of an intranet, such as among others:
Browser applications such as Internet Explorer, Opra, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape
Network device
TCP / IP protocol
Server computer
Client computer
Programming languages like html, php, mysql, and others

Definition and Function of Satellites

Definition and Function of Satellites
Satellites are celestial bodies that do not have their own light source and move around certain planets while following them circulating with certain periods of revolution and rotation. There are two types of satellites, namely natural and artificial satellites. Natural satellites are non-man-made space objects orbiting a planet or other object larger than itself. For example the Moon which is a satellite of the Earth.

Satellite Image
The movement of satellites around the earth generally follows the Keppler law (Keplerian Movement) which is based on several assumptions, namely the movement of satellites is only influenced by the earth's central gravity field, satellites move in the field of orbit that remains in space, the mass of satellites is not significant compared to the mass of the earth, satellites moving in a vacuum, and no sun, moon, or other celestial bodies affect the movement of satellites.
While artificial satellites are man-made objects that are launched into space for certain purposes. Just like a natural satellite, the artificial satellite is an object in the sky that rotates following the rotation of the earth. Satellites can be distinguished based on their shape and use such as: weather satellites, communication satellites, science and technology satellites and military satellites.
To be able to operate satellites are launched into orbit with the help of rockets. Developed countries like the United States, Russia, France and later China, already have stations to throw satellites into orbit. Therefore, this paper is made to find out the history and development of artificial satellites and the problems that arise from the satellites themselves.

Definition of Satellite
Satellites are celestial bodies that do not have their own light source and move around certain planets while following them circulating with certain periods of revolution and rotation. There are two types of satellites, namely natural and artificial satellites. Natural satellites are non-man-made space objects orbiting a planet or other object larger than itself. For example the Moon which is a satellite of the Earth.

Satellite History
The first man-made satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviets on October 4, 1957, and began the Russian Sputnik Program, with Sergei Korolev as chief of disein and Kerim Kerimov as his assistant. This launch triggered a space race (space race) between the Soviets and America. Sputnik 1 helps identify the density of the upper layers of the atmosphere by measuring changes in its orbit and provides data from the distribution of radio signals in the ionosphere.

Because this satellite body is filled with high-pressure nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provides the first opportunity in detecting meteorites, because the loss in internal pressure caused by meteroid penetration can be seen through the temperature data it sends to earth. Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and brought the crew of the first living creature into orbit, a dog named Laika. In May, 1946, Project Rand released a preliminary design for a spacecraft experiment to navigate the world, stating that, "a satellite vehicle containing the right instrumentation could be expected to be a sophisticated scientific tool for the twentieth century".
America has been thinking about launching an orbiting satellite since 1946 under the Bureau of Aeronautics of the United States Navy. Project RAND owned by the US Air Force finally issued the report above, but did not say that the satellite has potential as a military weapon. However, they consider it a tool of science, politics, and propaganda. In 1954, the American Defense Secretariat stated, "I was not aware of any American satellite programs." On July 29, 1955, the White House announced that the United States would launch satellites in the spring of 1958. This became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, Soviets announced that they would launch a satellite in the fall of 1957. Orbiting the earth was the International Space Station.

Impact of Satellite Use

Impact of Satellite Use in the World
Although in general the development and use of satellites have a positive impact in the form of ease in the aspects of communication, information to several other fields including economic and military, the use of satellites also has the potential to cause negative impacts. As it is known that radio broadcasts and television and telephon requires satellite as a medium in conveying information. The development of the Palapa Satellite which continues to cover its various shortcomings also impacts the development of communication devices such as television, radio and telephone.

That is one of the many impacts of the existence or use of the Palapa Satellite in America. Development in the telecommunications sector has become more advanced. For example, the world of television in America which was once held by the government sector, has now begun to be filled by the private sector. This is of course motivated by the increasing human need for information, in addition to the development of satellite technology in America.
But with the level of progress in developing satellites in the Southeast Asian region, America can also be said to have a positive impact on other Southeast Asian countries. Like the Philippines and Thailand who use satellite services from America for the needs of their respective countries. Thus, of course, the impact also on the income of the state treasury from satellite leasing and shared use. Speed up communication and information, is a very beneficial impact of the use of the Palapa Satellite in America.

However, it cannot be denied that at this time humans themselves seem to be controlled by technology developed by humans. The development of satellite itself is also followed by the development of the internet. No doubt that the two are closely related. In the matter of the internet itself, today is very bad impact member although there are also other positive impacts. Starting from fraud in buying and selling transactions via on line to the spread of pornographic images and violence. It is feared to have a bad influence, especially on children, especially students.

So in other words, the use of satellite communication services that have an impact on information globalization, is also expected to be able to provide a comprehensive distribution of information for regions in America. Social change in a country does not always bring positive developments, but there are negative ones that affect people's behavior and mindset, which has been alluded to in the above discussion. This is a challenge for America to manipulate the shift in the values of the era so that it becomes a characteristic of a moderate nation, without ignoring the values and principles of the nation's own personality, namely Pancasila.
Satellites have many functions such as natural satellites and artificial satellites.

That is a review of the Definition, Functions and Types of Satellites along with Complete Examples. Hopefully what is reviewed above is useful for the reader. That is all and thank you.

Geodetic and Meteorological: Global Geostatinonary Earth

Geodetic and Meteorological: Global Geostatinonary Earth
Geodetic satellites, namely man-made types of satellites that have a function to carry out an earth mapping and to obtain various information about gravity.
Communication satellites, which is one type of man-made satellite that has a function in the world of communication, such as television, telephone, and so on.
Meteorological satellites, namely one type of man-made that has a function in investigating an earth's atmosphere to do weather forecasting.
Research satellites, which is one type of artificial satellite that has a function in investigating the solar system and the universe that is more widely and freely without the influence of the atmosphere. This research satellite is trying to get a variety of data about the sun and also other stars in order to find out the secrets of the universe.
Military satellites, which is one type of artificial satellite that has a function in the military world of the country, for example in staking a force from enemy weapons.
Natural resource survey satellites, i.e. satellites that function to map and investigate various natural resources found on earth for the benefit of a mining, fishery, agriculture, and so on.

Based on the height of the orbit, satellites are divided into 3 types, namely:
LEO (Low Earh Orbit) Satellite
LEO satellite is a satellite that has a low orbit which is between 500 km to 10000 km from the surface of the earth. The time for this LEO satellite revolution is 2 to 6 hours. Examples of LEO satellites are Global Star, Iridium, Ellipsat, Constellation, and Odessey.
MEO Satellite (Medium Earth Orbit) MEO satellite is a satellite that has a medium orbit that is between 10000 km to 20000 km from an earth's surface. The time for this MEO satellite revolution is 6 to 12 hours.
GEO (Global Geostatinonary Earth) Satellite This type of satellite is in a geostationary orbit which is about 36000 km from the surface of the earth. This stationary orbit is an orbit that can result in the revolutionary time of GEO satellites equal to the rotation of the earth, which is 1 day. For example GEO satellites are palapa satellites and intelsat satellites.

Satellites Satellites in America
1. Palapa A1 Satellite (1976) The first satellite in America.
The first satellite was launched on July 8, 1976 by a United States rocket and released over the Indian Ocean at 83 ° east. Has a mass of 574 kg.
2. Sateli Palapa A2 (1977)
Palapa A2 is an American-owned communication satellite and is operated by Perumtel. Palapa A2 was launched on March 10, 1977 with the Delta 2914 rocket and operated in orbit 77 BT.
3. Sateli Palapa B2P (1987)
This satellite is located at an altitude of 36,000km above the equator at a location of 113 ° East and is controlled by a station located on Earth precisely in the Cibinong area.
4. Sateli Palapa C1 (1996)
Palapa C1 is produced by Hughes (United States, US) and launched on January 31, 1996 at the Kennedy Space Center, this satellite is intended as a replacement for the Palapa B4 satellite in the Orbit Geo Stationary slot 113º East
5. Palapa C2 Satellite (1996)
Palapa C2 is produced by Hughes (United States, US) and was launched on May 15, 1996 in Kourou, French Guiana (Ko ELA-2), using the Ariane-44L H10-3 rocket. This satellite operates in the Geo Stationary Orbit slot 113º East.
6. TELKOM-2 Satellite (2005)
This satellite was carried into space using the Ariane 5 rocket from France on November 16, 2005.
This satellite will circulate in orbit 118 ° East.
7. INASAT-1 Satellite (2006) First Satellite made in America
In addition, INASAT-1 is a Nano satellite, which uses small electronic components, weighing around 10-15 kg.

Satellite Characteristics

Satellite Characteristics
How satellite systems work conventionally:
Namely by sending signals from computers and relayed by satellites without processing in satellites. Weaknesses of this method, computers that are connected directly to the satellite must work for 24 hours. If one computer is turned off then the connection to the computer will be disconnected. The advantage is that conventional communication satellites can be used without modification. Computers in satellites function to temporarily store information that can automatically be done.

How data transmission works via satellite:
The use of satellite communication systems has provided the ability for humans to communicate and obtain information from various parts of the world simultaneously without regard to their relative distance. The basic components of satellite transmission are:

Earth station, used to send and receive data
Satellite, also called transponder
PCs that use internet networks with satellite networks are categorized as wireless networks using microwaves. These microwaves will be transmitted and processed by earth satellite stations which are then transmitted to satellites in outer space, and subsequently will be received again by the destination earth satay station.
How it works to transmit data via satellite by paying attention to these components, namely the satellite receives a signal from the earth station (up-link) then strengthens the signal, changes the frequency and retransmits the data to another receiving earth station (down-link). In satellite transmission there is a delay because the signal must move towards space and back to earth, a time lag of about 0.5 seconds. Satellites use different frequencies to receive and transmit data. Satellite frequency range is:
4-6 giga hertz, called C-band
12-14 giga hertz, called Ku-Band
20 giga hertz.

Various Kinds of Satellites
1. Natural Satellite
Natural satellite is one of the extraterrestrials that already exists (not made by humans) orbiting a planet. Earth's natural satellite, the moon. During the moon around the planet Earth, the moon undergoes three movements at once, namely rotation, revolution, the moon around the earth and the revolution of the moon around the sun.

Natural Satellite Function
Indirectly natural satellites to protect a planet orbitered from a hit by other celestial bodies such as comets and asteroids
To control a rotational speed on a planet because of its effect gravitational tidal wave
in order to balance a sea water cycle which results in tides in sea water
In order to reduce an effect caused by an ultraviolet radiation
As lighting at night
Examples of natural satellites

The moon, which is a natural satellite owned by planet Earth
Io satellite, which surrounds the planet Jupiter
Titan satellites that orbit the planet Saturn

2. Artificial Satellite
An artificial satellite is one of man-made space objects orbiting a planet that in its manufacture has certain types and functions with a purpose for the benefit of humans. Here are the types of satellites based on their functions:
Navigation satellites, which is one type of man-made satellite that has functions for the world of aviation and shipping. This navigation satellite can provide an information about the position of aircraft and ships that are in transit.